Regular preventive care is one of the most important ways
to maintain your health over time. If you wait to see a doctor only when you
notice a problem, it may be too late.
Cervical cancer screening is especially important for women’s
health — but how and when it should be done has been the subject of debate.
Guidelines from the American Society of Obstetricians and
Gynecologists (ACOG) recommend:
- Cervical cancer screening should
start at age 21 years.
- Women aged 21–29 years should have a
Pap test every 3 years.
aged 30–65 years should have a Pap test and an HPV test (co-testing) every 5
years (preferred). It is acceptable
to have a Pap test alone every 3 years.
More research is needed to determine how the HPV test
should be incorporated into our screening program, but experts say it’s not
likely to replace the Pap anytime soon. For now, both ACOG and the U.S.
Preventive Services Task Force say Pap smears are a woman’s best bet for early
detection of cervical cancer.
“Pap smears can detect early precancerous changes on the
cervix,” explains Johnathan Lancaster, MD, PhD, chair of the department of
women’s oncology and director of the center for women’s oncology at H. Lee
Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, in Tampa, Fl. “These changes can
be easily treated, thus dramatically reducing the risk of progression to cervical
What Problems Can a Pap smear Detect?
“Pap smears are not designed to detect cervical
cancer,” says Dr. Lancaster. “They are designed to detect cervical dysplasia,
or precancerous changes [in the cervix].” When Pap smear detects abnormal cells,
your doctor can take steps to figure out the culprit behind these changes and
treat the condition before it turns into cancer.
How Often Should I Have a Pap smear?
“Like all medical tests, Pap smears are not 100 percent
accurate,” he says. “This reinforces the importance of having regular Paps, so
that even if one Pap misses an early abnormal change, it’s likely to be picked
up at the next Pap.”
What if I Have an Abnormal Pap smear?
An abnormal Pap smear means abnormal cells have been
identified on your cervix. Depending on the type of cells found, your doctor might
recommend repeating the test in four to six months, Lancaster says. Other
times, they may choose to perform a colposcopy in order to get a better look at
the cervix and take tissue samples to biopsy so they can determine what types
of cells are present.
During a colposcopy, a thin tube with a very small camera
attached to it is gently inserted into the vagina, up to your cervix. During a
biopsy, your doctor removes a small piece of tissue from your cervix to analyze
it under a microscope. The results of these tests can determine the nature of
the problem and guide treatment.
When Should Start and Stop Getting A Pap
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends women begin
getting Pap smears within three years of the first time they have sexual
intercourse, or by age 21, whichever comes first, says Lancaster.
women may discontinue Pap smears after age 65, but this needs to be a highly
individualized decision based on risk factors and decided in conjunction with
their gynecologist,” Lancaster says.
How Should I prepare for a Pap smear?
says the presence of any substance in the vagina can lower the accuracy of a
Pap smear. He recommends women avoid douching or engaging in sexual intercourse
for two to three days prior to having a Pap smear to get more accurate results.
Lancaster also says it’s preferable that women not be menstruating when having
a Pap smear, since this too can interfere with the accuracy of the test.
What Happens During a Pap smear?
Many people confuse pelvic exams with Pap Smears. The pelvic exam is part of a woman’s routine health care. During a
pelvic exam, the doctor looks at and feels the reproductive organs, including
the uterus and the ovaries and may do tests for sexually transmitted disease.
Pap tests are often done during pelvic exams, but you can have a pelvic exam
without having a Pap test. A pelvic exam without a Pap test will not help find
abnormal cells of the cervix or cervical cancer at an early stage.
The Pap test is often done during a pelvic exam, after
the speculum is placed. To do a Pap test, the doctor removes cells from the
cervix by gently scraping or brushing it with a special instrument. Pelvic
exams may help find other types of cancers and reproductive problems, but a Pap
test is needed to find early cervical cancer r pre-cancers. Ask your doctor if
you had a Pap test with your pelvic exam.
smears are generally painless and usually done during a pelvic exam. The doctor
will position you on the exam table and insert a device called a speculum into
your vagina; the speculum opens the vaginal area wider, giving the doctor a
better view of the cervical area. The doctor will then swab your cervix with a
brush or cotton swab to collect cells from its surface, and then send the cells
off for analysis to see if there are any abnormal cells present.
Although Pap smears can seem like an uncomfortable
nuisance, they are critical to keeping women of all ages healthy. Talk to your
doctor to determine how often you should have a Pap smear.